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[每天十篇] GRE作文连载 27--英汉双语版(外语教学与研究出

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发表于 2011-4-2 16:52:52 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

题目"The study of an academic discipline alters the way we perceive the world. After studying the discipline, we see the same world as before, but with different eyes."

范文One of the primary aims of an educational system is to change the way that its students behave and interact with the rest of the world, even at the elementary school level. As one moves further up through school, perhaps even moving on to the graduate level of studying a particular academic discipline, there is no doubt that the world itself has not changed, but the way that the educated person views the world has become vastly different. If this were not so, there would be little reason for a person to pursue higher learning.

To begin with, let\'s take the example of the study of a relatively simple academic discipline such as marketing. The scholar studies all aspects of marketing, such as marketing research, marketing communications and marketing management. Over a period of three to four years or more, the student learns all about how people, organizations, corporations and governments all use marketing to persuade the general public to believe in a particular idea, campaign, product or political belief. From the very first marketing class, the student becomes aware that marketing is engaged in the process of manipulating people. The world will never look the same to that individual as he sees the tremendous amount of information available to the world in an entirely different (and most likely more cynical) light. For instance, as a specific example, the student learns that most products and brands featured in television and movies are placed there deliberately, with a large fee paid to the producers by the company that sells the product. It will be difficult for the marketing scholar to watch almost any movie or program without looking through his or her new frame of reference, noticing practically every brand name and product that is featured in a television program or theatrical release.

Furthermore, the more intensive the education, the more that person\'s view of the world will change. Nuclear physicists cannot look at an object without noting on some level its subatomic components and construction. Astronomers with a PhD cannot be expected to simply gaze at a starlit sky in the same manner as a pair of young lovers out on a date. Physicians cannot help but see the human body in a much more clinical manner than most other people - after all, they have most likely thoroughly analyzed a human body before, both inside and out. A lawyer will never be able to perceive the world in the same way again after law school or especially after practicing law for several years. The study of law will instill in the law student a critical method of analyzing facts and situations. It is only natural that this training will spill over into other aspects of the lawyer\'s life, not just when dealing with legal facts. It is not possible to "think" in more than one way once your mind has been trained at critical analysis. Additionally, after the lawyer has practiced for several years, he or she will likely have seen both the good sides and the bad sides of humanity in a society. Even when meeting new people, the experienced lawyer will have a predisposed opinion of how he or she perceives this person based on their own paradigm, looking through the biased lenses of legal training.

The study of an academic discipline does not in and of itself make the world different, although the application of those studies can certainly change the course of human events. But the perceptions of the world and the way that it works are forever altered for the individual that pursues a higher education, as his or her "eyes" will never "look" the same way again.
                                              (613 words)

译文;

对一个学科之研习,可以改变我们认识世界的方式。在研习一个学科之后,我们所看到的仍是一个和以前相同的世界,但观察的角度已全然不同

一种教育体制的首要目的,是改变其学生的行为以及与世界交流的方式,甚至在初等教育的水平上亦复如此。随着一个人继续上学,甚至在研究生阶段研习某一学科,世界本身无疑是没有什么变化的,但是受教育者观察世界的方式已经是很大地不同了。倘若不是这样的话,就没有什么理由让一个人接受高等教育了。首先,让我们以研习一个相对简单的学科(例如市场营销)为例。学习者研习市场营销的各个方面,诸如市场调查,市场流通,市场管理等。通过三、四年或更长时间的学习,学生学习到个人、机构、公司和政府是如何运用营销这门学问劝诱公众相信某种观念、运动、产品或政治信仰的。从最初的市场课堂,学生意识到市场营销所关涉的就是一个操纵人的过程。随着一个人用完全不同的(而且很可能是更加愤世嫉俗的)目光看到大量的信息涌入这个世界,这个世界将永远不会对这个人是同样的。例如,作为一个具体的例子,学生会了解到,在电视和电影中所宣传的大多数产品和商品都是故意地安排在那儿的,销售那些产品的厂家给制片人支付了巨额费用。对于市场营销的学者来说,去观看任何电影或电视节目而不加进他/ 她自己新的参照框架是很困难的。他会注意到电视节目或电影上播放的几乎每一种品牌和产品。

  

进而言之,教育俞精深,一个人看待世界的角度就会变化愈大。核物理学家不可能观察一个事物而不在一定程度上注意其亚原子成份和结构。具有博士学位的天文学家不可能与一对在露天约会的年轻情侣以同样的方式注视星光明亮的天空。内科医生会情不自禁地比多数常人更易于从临床的角度观察一个人体。一个律师在读完法学院或从业数年之后,决不会再以同样的方式认识世界。对法律的研习会给法律专业的学生灌输一种分析事实和情况的判断方法。很自然,这种训练将扩展到这位律师生活的其它方面,而不仅仅限于处理法律事务。一旦你的脑子受到批判性分析的训练,你就不可能用两种或两种以上的方法"思维"。而且,在一位律师从业若干年之后,他/她很可能会看到一个社会群体中人类美好的方面和丑陋的方面。甚至在遇见陌生人时,有经验的律师对他/她认识该人的方式也会具有基于他们自己范式的先入之见,因为他/她是在透过法律训练的偏颇之镜来审视他人的。


  对某一学科进行研习,这一做法本身不会改变世界,尽管对于所学学科的应用肯定会改变人类事件的过程。但是对世界的感知认识以及感知认识世界的方式,对于那些受高等教育之人来说却是永远地改变了,因为受过高等教育之人的"目光"决不会再以同样的方式"看"待他周围的一切。

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